Ghosts: A Folly Beach Mystery

This last section will also offer a hermeneutical reading of Wittgenstein's notion of Excursus on Wittgenstein's Vision of Language. The New Wittgenstein (eds.

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Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora | British Journal of Nutrition | Cambridge Core

Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age. Redox signaling regulates commensal-mediated mucosal homeostasis and restitution and requires formyl peptide receptor 1. Mucosal Immunol. Metabolites produced by commensal bacteria promote peripheral regulatory T-cell generation.

Transcriptomic response of immune signalling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides, Gram-negative bacteria or potentially probiotic microbes. Sialylated galacto-oligosaccharides and 2-fucosyllactose reduce necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats.

Role of gut microbiota in liver diseases: crosstalk between the liver and gut

Ayres JS. Cooperative microbial tolerance behaviors in host-microbiota mutualism. World J. Baumler AJ, Sperandio V. Interactions between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in the gut. Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant differentially modulate inflammatory biomarkers in Escherichia coli -challenged human dendritic cells. Bode L, Jantscher-Krenn E. Structure-function relationships of human milk oligosaccharides.

Role of autoinducer-2 on the adhesion ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Interaction of probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains with human intestinal epithelial cells: Adhesion properties, competition against enteropathogens and modulation of IL-8 production.

Food Microbiol. Prebiotic oligosaccharides directly modulate proinflammatory cytokine production in monocytes via activation of TLR4.

Food Res. Sialylated milk oligosaccharides promote microbiota-dependent growth in models of infant undernutrition. In vitro comparison of the effects of probiotic, commensal and pathogenic strains on macrophage polarization. Probiotics Antimicrob. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the cell wall hydrolase activity of the major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Regulation of immune cell function by short-chain fatty acids. The ecology of the microbiome: Networks, competition, and stability.

Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Allergy Clin. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor in immunity. Trends Immunol. Probiotic bacteria prevent hepatic damage and maintain colonic barrier function in a mouse model of sepsis. The long-term stability of the human gut microbiota. Population-level analysis of gut microbiome variation. Signaling in host-associated microbial communities. Inhibitory effect of tumor cell-derived lactic acid on human T cells. Immunomodulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG LGG -derived soluble factors on antigen-presenting cells of healthy blood donors.

Butyrate switches the pattern of chemokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells through histone acetylation.


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Probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis by modulating enterocyte genes that regulate innate immune-mediated inflammation. Liver Physiol. Probiotics prevent death caused by Citrobacter rodentium infection in neonatal mice. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

How The Gut Microbiota Affects Our Health with Dr. Erica & Dr. Justin Sonnenburg

Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: Shaping immune responses. Microbiome-wide association studies link dynamic microbial consortia to disease. Ginsburg I. Role of lipoteichoic acid in infection and inflammation. Lancet Infect. Probiotic bacterial strains differentially modulate macrophage cytokine production in a strain-dependent and cell subset-specific manner. Postnatal prebiotic fiber intake in offspring exposed to gestational protein restriction has sex-specific effects on insulin resistance and intestinal permeability in rats.

Modulating immunity as a therapy for bacterial infections. Neonatal supplementation of processed supernatant from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG improves allergic airway inflammation in mice later in life. Probiotics, prebiotics and immunomodulation of gut mucosal defences: Homeostasis and immunopathology. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve NCC against DSS-induced colitis is dependent on bacterial preparation and timing of administration. Targeting gut microbiota as a possible therapy for diabetes. Hemarajata P, Versalovic J.

Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: Mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation. Lactobacillus reuteri -specific immunoregulatory gene rsiR modulates histamine production and immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri. Expert consensus document.

The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Immune signalling responses in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to pathogenic Escherichia coli and lactic acid-producing probiotics.

The Evidence

Honda K, Littman DR. The microbiota in adaptive immune homeostasis and disease. Lactocepin as a protective microbial structure in the context of IBD. Adaptation of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor to sense microbiota-derived indoles. Imaoka A, Umesaki Y. Rationale for using of Bifidobacterium probiotic strains-fermented milk against colitis based on animal experiments and clinical trials.

Lactate and short chain fatty acids produced by microbial fermentation downregulate proinflammatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells and myeloid cells. The role of lactate on the immunomodulatory properties of the nonbacterial fraction of kefir.

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Improving Probiotic Survival Rates

The probiotic mixture VSL 3 alters the morphology and secretion profile of both polarized and unpolarized human macrophages in a polarization-dependent manner. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. Amelioration of the effects of Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice by pretreatment with probiotics. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide and inulin modulate inflammatory responses and microbial communities in Caco2-bbe cells and in a mouse model of intestinal injury.

Modulation of immune development and function by intestinal microbiota. Lipoteichoic acid isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum suppresses LPS-mediated atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Gut microbial metabolites fuel host antibody responses. Short-chain fatty acids activate GPR41 and GPR43 on intestinal epithelial cells to promote inflammatory responses in mice. Gastroenterology 2 : Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits epithelial barrier dysfunction and interleukin-8 secretion induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Bifidobacterium infantis administration induces Foxp3 T regulatory cells in human peripheral blood: Potential role for myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Genome Med. Commensal bacteria modulate cullin-dependent signaling via generation of reactive oxygen species.


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EMBO J. Lactate, a product of glycolytic metabolism, inhibits histone deacetylase activity and promotes changes in gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res.

Peripheral education of the immune system by colonic commensal microbiota. PD-1 blockade in tumors with mismatch-repair deficiency. Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotics: Lipoteichoic acid makes a difference. Trends Microbiol. Host interactions of probiotic bacterial surface molecules: Comparison with commensals and pathogens.