Other people were frightened and saw no end to the Occupation, while some were motivated simply by the desire to survive.
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Many women who collaborated fall into the latter category. Food, clothes, and fuel among other items were scarce during the Occupation. One way to ensure warmth and a full belly was by making nice with a German soldier. In a desperate attempt to survive, some French women took on German soldiers as lovers. It return, the soldier ensured the woman's basic needs were met. Not all women had affairs for material gain - some simply slept with German soldiers because they were lonely.
Either way, these sexual liaisons produced man…. It is among the first works of fiction written about World War Two. It shows that the Nazis did not truly succeed in killing her. It is not vengeance, but it is a victory. Cite This Page. MLA Chicago. Grimm, Alexandra. Retrieved December 1, Copy to Clipboard.
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LitCharts is hiring. Marmota flaviventris, physiologie, physiology, endocrinologie, endocrinology, hibernation, rythme, rhythm, plasma, melatonin.
Plasma melatonin concentrations were measured in marmots Marmota flaviventris maintained under three short-day 4LD; 8LD; 10LD and one long-day 14LD photoperiod s. Each animal had a daily rhythm of plasma melatonin with elevated plasma melatonin levels occurring during the dark period of the lighting cycle. There were no significant differences between any peak values during the night.
The mean duration of elevated night melatonin concentrations was significantly different between long-day 16L:8D and 8LD or 4LD animals P less than 0. Daytime plasma melatonin levels were not significantly different among the photoperiods. These results characterize plasma melatonin rhythms in a sciurid rodent and demonstrate that this rhythm is modified by photoperiod. Therefore, the plasma melatonin profile could convey information about day length to the animal or, alternatively, the rhythm may be acting as a time- keeping mechanism for other physiological functions.
Carbohydrate and lipid utilization in hibernators [Utilisation des glucides et des lipides chez les hibernants]. In Living in the cold , A. Canguilhem eds. Marmota flaviventris, hibernation, lipides, lipids, glucides.https://rmacberapep.tk
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The life cycle of hibernators can be divided into two phases, a weight gain phase late spring to early autumn and a weight loss phase late autumn to early spring. During the weight gain phase, the high food intake stimulates gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, thus promoting glycogen and lipid storage, respectively.
Glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissue, as measured by hyperglycemic clamp, is significantly increased. This, together with earlier data, suggests that meta- bolism switches in autumn from a lipogenic to a lipolytic state. White adipose tissue triglycerides comprise mainly palmitic acid , oleic acid and linoleic acid The percentage of saturated fatty acids in these triglycerides decreases over the winter months, while that of dienoic acids increases suggesting that they are preferentially retained.
These data suggest that hormones such as insulin are important regulators of sesonal changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. The threshold hypothalamic temperature and the proportionality constant for the metabolic heat production response were investigated in three euthermic marmots during wakefulness W , slow-wave sleep SWS , and paradoxical sleep PS , and in four marmots during entrances into hibernation.
Hypothalamic temperature Thy was manipulated with chronically implanted, water-perfused thermodes straddling the hypothalamus.
Rate of metabolic heat production MHP measured as oxygen consumption, ambient temperature Ta , and Thy were continuously recorded during experiments. Arousal states were defined from recordings of the cortical electro-encephalogram EEG and the dorsal neck muscle electromyogram EMG. The proportionality constant which describes the MHP response to a decrease in Thy. These same animals showed no metabolic response to Thy's as low as Manipulations of Thy in animals entering hibernation revealed a continuously declining threshold Thy and aMHPm.
When aMHP was expressed as a function of threshold it had a temperature coefficient of 2.
These results suggest that the central nervous regulator of body temperature is continuously operative over the entire range of body temperatures Tb's experienced by the hibernator. The fact that values of aMHP obtained during hibernation extrapolate to euthermic SWS values rather than euthermic wakeful values lends credence to the hypothesis that hibernation is an extension of thermoregulatory adjustmens which normally occur during SWS.
Plasma catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine were measured in non-hibernating summer and hibernating woodchucks Marmota monax. In summer, norephinephrine NE concentration after cold acclimation was double the level found at warm ambient temperature. Epinephrine E and dopamine DA concentrations were not significantly different between warm and cold acclimation 3. During entrance into and in deep hibernation, all catecholamine values were significantly lower than cold-adapted levels.
With arousal from hibernation, all catecholamines rose markedly above the summer values. The variation in plasma catecholamine levels reflect dramatic changes in the adrenosympathetic axis during all stages of hibernation. Florian Jean-Pierre Claris de Fables de M.
Paris, P. BNF , p. Floyd C. Marmots on Great Basin mountaintops: Using microsatellites to test for dispersal between ranges. Les marmottes du Great basin : Utilisation des microsatellites pour tester la dispersion entre les aires de distribution. Foggin J. McGill University.
Marmota caudata, social, botanique, botany. Fokanov V. Generalities upon mammals in the Ural, western sector of Kazakhstan]. A new sub-species of M. En Russe, in Russian. Folitarek S. Some data on the ecology of the Tien Shan marmot M. Folk G. Initial stages of hibernation: is cold acclimatization necessary? En Anglais, in English. Fontan Alfred Fontana L. Los vestigios de la capa 7 de la Cueva de Belvis Aude demostran una ocupacion "chatelpenou" situada cerca de los BP.
El estudio de los hallazgos de fauna atestiga que los hombres de Belvis han practicado una Caza diversificada en unos nichos ecologicos de montana baja. El estudio arqueozoologico de los restos faunisticos de Pont-de-Longues extrazidos de dos capas magdalenienses, ha puesto en evidencia : - una breferncia por la caza del reno y del caballo, - las cacerias de reno durante el verano y el otono, - el tratamiento diferncial de los diversos elementos de las osamentas y la especializada funcion del sector excavad unido a une partedel tratamiento carnicero.
Este analisis ha sugerido, que este yacimento no habria sido un lugar de matanza, mas bien un lugar de habitacion.